Android Operating System
Developer —————- Google, Open Handset Alliance
Written in—————–C (core), C++, Java (UI)
Source model————-Open source and in most devices with proprietary components
Initial release————–September 23, 2008
Latest release————–5.1 “Lollipop” / March 10, 2015; 13 days ago
Marketing target———Smartphones, tablet computers, TVs, cars and wearable devices
Available in-—————68 languages
Package manager———Google Play, APK
Platforms——————-32- and 64-bit: ARM architectures, x86, x86-64, MIPS and MIPS64
Kernel type—————–Monolithic (modified Linux kernel)
Userland———————Bionic libc, mksh shell, native core utilities with a few from Net BSD
Default user interface—Graphical (Multi-touch)
License———————–Apache License 2.0
GNU—————————GPL v2 for the Linux kernel modifications
Official website ————-www.android.com
Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the Linux kernel and currently developed by Google. With a user interface based on direct manipulation, Android is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, with specialized user interfaces for televisions (Android TV), cars (Android Auto), and wrist watches (Android Wear).
The OS uses touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, such as swiping, tapping, pinching, pressing, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, and a virtual keyboard. Despite being primarily designed for touchscreen input, it also has been used in game consoles, digital cameras, regular PCs (e.g. the HP Slate 21) and other electronics.
Google Play store has had over one million Android applications (“apps”) published, and over 50 billion applications downloaded.
A developer survey was conducted in April–May 2013 and found that 71% of mobile developers develop for Android. At Google I/O 2014, the company revealed that there were over one billion active monthly Android users, up from 538 million in June 2013.
Now in 2015, Android has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Android’s source code is released by Google under open source licenses, although most Android devices ultimately ship with a combination of open source and proprietary software, including proprietary software developed and licensed by Google.
Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance—a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices.
Android is popular with technology companies which require a ready-made, low-cost and customizable operating system for high-tech devices. Android’s open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially, released running other operating systems. The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called “smartphone wars” between technology companies.
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